9 Methods to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh Produce
As a grower or supplier of fresh produce, there’s not much worse than having your products expire early.
This can damage your reputation and be expensive to deal with. Not to mention the hundreds of millions of tons of food loss and waste it causes globally per year.
Growers and shippers give their fruits and vegetables the best chance of staying fresh by extending shelf life.
Why Extending Shelf Life Helps?
Fresh produce can spend up to half its life in transit. When shipping fruits and vegetables all over the world, it’s important to make sure the energy required to do so is put to good use.
Fruits and vegetables need to be given the best chance to survive long haul shipments.
Some benefits of extending shelf life include:
- Better quality produce
- Fewer shipments rejected
- Less food loss and waste
- Increased margins
- Better brand reputation
There are a few different approaches to shelf life extension, including a few exciting innovations in recent years.
Causes of Reduced Shelf Life
To prolong shelf life, you must know what harms fresh produce.
The main factors that can affect shelf life are:
- Ethylene exposure
- Temperature changes and extremes
- Microbial growth
- Physical harm
So, it makes sense that the methods used to extend shelf life should affect at least one of these factors.
Different Methods of Fresh Produce Shelf Life Extension
Methods to extend shelf life can vary for different types of fruits and vegetables, but there are multiple solutions for most.
Different ways of extending shelf life include:
- Packaging improvements and modified atmosphere packaging
- Improving treatment and handling procedures
- Finding weaknesses in cold chain
- Monitoring humidity
- Individual item coverings
- Smart stickers
- Absorbent food trays and pads
- New varieties
- Natural antimicrobials
Packaging Improvements and Modified-Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
An easy step towards extending fruit and vegetable shelf life is to improve packaging. Shelf life-extending packaging can control respiration rate, ripening, and/or microbial growth.
Longer shelf life enables extended seasonality, less food loss, and a higher chance of maintaining freshness.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) works to control the gases that surround an item. For example, limiting the oxygen that surrounds fruit will help to prolong shelf life.
Certain pallet covers, carton containers, and sheets can help to control ethylene.
Packaging improvements and MAP to extend shelf life
Improving Treatment and Handling Procedures
From the moment a fruit or vegetable is harvested, you need to make sure your treatments and handling methods are not harming them.
Examples of poor treatment methods can be using contaminated water to clean items or storing them in contaminated boxes.
Also, ensuring fresh produce is not subjected to excessive forces will help to ensure they are not damaged. Even minor things can harm shelf life. Keeping standard operating procedures (SOPs) is important to ensure proper handling, treatment and handling procedures to extend shelf life
Finding Temperature Weaknesses in Cold Chain
Keeping a low temperature helps to limit decay and slow down microbial growth. If any part of the cold chain between harvest and the customer is compromised, it can harm the products.
One study showed that a delay of four hours between harvest and precooling of strawberries increased water loss by almost 50%. It also harmed the appearance upon arrival at the distribution center.
There are a few useful methods to record the temperature throughout the cold chain. This data can also be used to enable shelf life prediction.
Fix weaknesses in the cold chain to extend shelf life
Monitoring Humidity to Identify Improvement Areas
Humidity monitoring is equally important to temperature tracking. The two are often bundled together, as well.
Having high humidity helps to limit moisture loss in fruits and vegetables. Refrigeration can cause humidity loss, so keeping proper humidity levels is crucial to reducing shrink.
IoT devices track both temperature and humidity of items from the farm to the customer to identify areas for improvement, monitor humidity to extend shelf life
Individual Item Coverings
Natural, plant-based coverings on fresh produce have generated a lot of buzz lately. One company, Apeel, has even raised a few hundred million dollars in funding for its solution.
Produce degrades by losing water and through oxidation (a chemical process requiring oxygen). Apeel’s coverings work by keeping moisture inside and oxygen outside.
Some stores have implemented using individual plastic coverings on fresh produce to extend the shelf life. It is best to avoid plastic wherever possible. However, using plastic coverings can be better for the environment than letting food go to waste.
Some studies show how certain compounds can reduce the effects of ethylene or limit microbial growth to extend shelf life.
While there is plenty of validation in the supply chain left to perform, it is certainly an interesting idea that requires little effort smart stickers to extend shelf life
Absorbent Food Trays and Pads
There is a lot of innovation around pads that can go in the containers of fresh-cut produce. Pads absorb excess juices and can help to slow a product’s respiration rate.
These are already commonly used in the industry, but it’s worth keeping up with the increasing capabilities of absorbent pads, absorbent food trays and pads to extend shelf life
Since farming began, humans have always sought ways to make new varieties that taste better. Now that our planet is more spread out and we ship across the world, creating varieties of produce with longer shelf lives is an area of focus.
If you are open to using new varieties, it is best to keep an eye on what is available and evaluate potential alternatives.
Using herb, spice, or plant extracts as antimicrobials can help to prevent spoilage and extend shelf life.
As customers demand safer ingredients, it is important to seek out natural alternatives to chemicals. This can also be a selling point used to win even more customers.
What if You Had Extra Shelf Life?
What immediate benefits would you have if you could extend the shelf life of your produce by days, or even weeks? The answer is probably a lot.
You can have more shipments accepted, less shrink and loss, and improved margins.
Long-haul shipments become a possibility and you will be able to guarantee higher quality fruits and vegetables.
Reducing fresh produce food loss and waste reduces cost, improves brand reputation, and helps meet sustainability goals.
You can extend shelf life in several ways, and the best solution depends on the application.
Shelf life prediction is another useful tool for reducing food loss and waste and does not require physical product changes.
Need assistance with Shelf Life testing of your products? Contact us for a free consultation.